Simple Search searches everything in the library and returns a list of
matching documents sorted by relevance. Use Simple Search as you would use
Google, Yahoo!, or any other Internet search engine. Simply enter some terms
you are looking for and click "Search."
You can use Simple Search to find a document by symbol number or title. Simply
enter a title or symbol number and the matching documents will be returned.
The search engine knows that certain parts of the documents in the
library--titles, symbol numbers, and so on--are important. Search results that
match those special fields will be ranked higher than ordinary search results.
After you have run a search, you can sort the search results. Click the column
headers (Symbol/publication #, Title, etc.) to resort the search results.
Advanced Search allows you to search particular fields in the library. As
such, it's useful for looking up citations and restricting your search results
by date, language, and other criteria. To use Advanced Search, fill in at
least one field on the search screen. Fill in more fields to narrow the
How to enter dates
Enter dates in the form
YYYY-MM-DD. You can also enter a year, or
a year/month combination.
1978-01-04 finds documents from January 4, 1978.
1978-01 finds documents from January, 1978 (any day of the month).
1978 finds documents from 1978 (any day of the year).
Date searching is inclusive. Searching for documents from "1978-01-
04" to "1984-09-09," for example, will return documents dated January 4, 1978
and September 9, 1984.
How to enter symbol or publication numbers
Enter symbol or publication numbers with spaces, forward slashes and periods
intact. By default, the symbol number search field looks for exact
matches to what you entered; entering "INF" will not find, for example,
document INF/167. Use wildcards to find groups of
symbol numbers, or if you are uncertain of how a symbol is formatted.
How to find phrases
To find a particular phrase, enclose it in quote marks.
"record prices" finds only documents that contain the exact phrase
Operators, wildcards, and booleans
You can fine tune your search results using operators and booleans. These
special features work on the Simple Search screen, and in the Full text,
Title, GATT body, and Symbol or Publication number fields on the Advanced
To exclude a word or phrase from search results, prefix the word or phrase
with the minus sign.
prices -record finds documents that
contain the word "prices," but not the word "record." Note: you
must type a minus sign in front of every word or phrase you wish to
exclude. To exclude "record" and "prices," enter
To perform a multiple character wildcard search use the "*" symbol.
Multiple character wildcard searches looks for zero or more characters.
For example, to search for test, tests or tester, you can use the search
test*. You can also use the wildcard searches in the middle
of a term.
To perform a single character wildcard search use the "?" symbol. The
single character wildcard search looks for terms that match that with the
single character replaced. For example, to search for "text" or "test" you
can use the search
The search engine that powers the GATT Digital Library supports
fuzzy searches based on the Levenshtein Distance, or Edit Distance
algorithm. To do a fuzzy search use the tilde, "~", symbol at the end of a
Single word Term. For example to search for a term similar in spelling to
"roam" use the fuzzy search
Boolean operators allow terms to be combined through logic operators.
OR. The OR operator links two terms and finds a matching
document if either of the terms exist in a document. This is equivalent to
a union using sets. The symbol || can be used in place of the word OR. To
search for documents that contain either "record prices" or just "prices"
use the query:
"record prices" OR "prices".
AND. The AND operator matches documents where both terms
exist anywhere in the text of a single document. This is equivalent to an
intersection using sets. The symbol && can be used in place of the
word AND. To search for documents that contain "record prices" and "record
growth" use the query:
"record prices" AND "record growth".
NOT. The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the
term after NOT. This is equivalent to a difference using sets. The symbol
! can be used in place of the word NOT. To search for documents that
contain "record prices" but not "record growth" use the query:
"record prices" NOT "record growth".
Portions of this help page are based on documentation produced by the Apache Software Foundation, and are subject to the Apache License, Version 2.0